types of metals or their synthetics may act as a skin sensitizers.
these are discussed below briefly.
The chromates are strong skin sensitizers. They may act as a primary
irritant or causing delayed type of contact eczema. Chromates
sensitization occurs in painters, photographers, diesel engine
mechanics, welders, tanners and those who are exposed to different
dyes. Dichromates are found in shoes, zippers, leather hat bands,
leather camera cases, cement, glues and chrome plated custom jewels.
contact with the chromate
treatment: is the same as that of contact dermatitis
Fig. 193. Acute contact dermatitis (Earrings)
Fig. 192. Contact dermatitis
can cause dermatitis but other metals dermatitis is due to metal
salts that of chromate, mercury, zinc, gold, silver and others.
Metal salts are available in earrings, hairpins, rings, braces and
Fig. 194a. Contact dermatitis (Necklace)
Fig. 194b.. Metal dermatitis
and platinum especially when mixed with other metals may cause
dermatitis. The most common source of metallic nickel is plated
objects. Stainless steel (usually containing 8% Ni and 18% Cr.)
seems not to have the same capacity to elicit contact dermatitis as
alloys with, for example, copper in coins, but cooking foods with
acid pH, such as fruit, in stainless steel saucepans may increase
salts (nickel sulfate, nickel ammonium sulfate, etc.) are all used in plating processes.
may contain nickel. Very small amounts of nickel are sufficient to
nickel have been detected in medical injectors and cardiac
foods and beverages contain much higher concentrations of nickel
than others, such as domestic water, and exposure to nickel may also
be a contaminant for vegetables from fertilizers .
types of mercuric salts may cause dermatitis. The different mercuric
salts that may cause skin sensitization are:
salts as Mercurochrome used as a common antiseptic may cause
dermatitis. Phenyl mercuric salts used in glue or gelatin waving
solution, in cosmetic industry as a preservative, in agriculture as
insecticide and fungicide. Many salts of aluminum may cause allergy
or irritation to the skin surface.
The metal is
used in amalgam (alloy of silver or copper and mercury) for tooth
filling and in instruments.
exanthemas have been reported in sensitized individuals from amalgam
and broken thermometers.
mercury is a rare cause of cutaneous granuloma .The inorganic
mercury salts are nowadays less used as topical medicaments.
compounds are used in pesticides and as antimicrobial agents in
oils, paints and the textile industry, in water, in the paper
industry and in shoe linings, but seldom cause sensitization.
Sometimes the organic compounds are used as preservatives in
injection solutions, gamma globulin and antigenic extracts, or in
expectorants, creams, skin disinfectants, eye drops and contact lens
mercuric borate (Merfen) is still much used as a disinfectant and
mercuric acetate is used in some vaginal spermicides, which may
cause allergic reaction.
sulfide (cinnabar) is used in red tattoos causing granulomatous
reactions and in artists paints. It may contain impurity of cadmium
sulfide and can thereby cause phototoxic reactions.
that are sensitive to mercury , react on patch testing to the metal
both the inorganic and organic compounds .
injected as hydroxide in adsorbed vaccine can cause granuloma. It
has also been reported as rare contact sensitizers.
alumina can cause pruritus.
salts are common cause of dermatitis. Different type are used in the
manufacture of chalk, fabrics and domestic articles, disinfectant in
agriculture and as a preservative of animal skins .
be present in medicaments, wood preservatives, pesticides, glass
industry, tanning, fireworks, additives, gold in fireproof packaging
and animal foodstuff .
is a common skin sensitizer.
e.g. gold trichloride (used in photography, gold plating and gilding
glass and porcelain) are sensitizers.
may contain nickel.
chloride is strong sensitizer.
for these salts can give positive reaction .
when iodine was widely used as an antiseptic and antimycotic agent
the frequency of sensitization was much higher than it is now .
solution has only 1% available iodine and is a rare sensitizers.
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